A recent survey in Germany studied the locations of serial killer victims in respect to the killer's home residence and found that 63% of the time the killer lived within a 6 mile traveling distance to the crime scene. So putting all these factors together we could expect the Zodiac Killer's first murders at Lake Herman Road on December 20th 1968 to be only a matter of a few miles from his house. Bearing in mind the timeline of that night, given by eyewitnesses Stella Borges and James Owen, it was determined the Zodiac Killer after brutally murdering David Faraday and Betty Lou Jensen turned east and headed towards Benicia. So in theory, there may be a good chance that if you were to take the journey from the Lake Herman Road turnout towards Benicia in your car, within the six mile mark, you may be near or have already passed the home of evil.
If we use the 'least effort principle', 'buffer zone', the greater risk related to distancing himself from familiarity, his daring, along with his working timetable, it makes San Francisco an unlikely home for the Zodiac Killer, assuming he remained in one location throughout his four attacks. If we take the mileage from the nearest point in San Francisco to the Lake Herman Road turnout, it is approximately 40 miles. See here. Therefore the geographical profiling principle would be turned on its head. The Zodiac Killer would have finished work on Friday and have been prepared to throw the 'least effort principle' out of the window and create his initial 'buffer zone' at 40 miles when carrying out the Lake Herman Road attack, followed by a 44 mile 'buffer zone' at Blue Rock Springs, he then traveled even further to Lake Berryessa at 80 miles for his third attack, but then finished closest to his home residence with the murder of Paul Stine on October 11th 1969. It would mean he was committing three crimes in excess of 40 miles away, in less familiar areas, such as the rarely used Lake Herman Road, with less escape routes as his opening gambit, however he was prepared to expose himself even further by traveling on foot in a built up area, having just shot a taxicab driver and secured a trophy, all within the nearest point to his home residence and just hoping he wasn't recognized. Does that sound right. Allied to the fact the killer must have had prior knowledge that Lake Herman Road and Blue Rock Springs Park were popular haunts for courting couples, unlikely to have been known by a native of San Francisco, unless he worked in the Vallejo/Benicia area or had previously lived there.
Another geographical profiling term is 'distance decay', that states that the farther you travel away from the killer's comfort zone, in other words, from his regular region of familiarity, the less likely he is to kill. Although we only have four crime scenes on our map above, it nevertheless would exhibit this trait, based on a premise of our killer living close to both Lake Herman Road and Blue Rock Springs Park. The cluster of pins in the map would therefore decay the further we traveled from the murderers base location. It is hard to call the first two crimes a cluster, but so far they are more suggestive of a warm zone than San Francisco on the circumference of our circle. It is true that many Zodiac Letters were mailed from San Francisco, but this is more than likely where he worked, as opposed to where he lived and mailed these letters to and from work. Had he finished work at 5 pm on Friday afternoon in San Francisco and arrived back in Benicia or Vallejo sometime approaching 6 pm, the 'least effort principle' would now kick in and this was reflected by his choice of locations on December 20th and July 4th. In fact the further away his employment address was, the greater this 'least effort principle' would apply, not only because of tiredness, but the time constraints of traveling further afield. In all probability the Zodiac Killer lived in either Vallejo or Benicia and that leaves one final question.
Bearing in mind the double murder at Lake Herman Road on December 20th 1968 at the dead of night, with the killer having fired off at least nine rounds, probably having picked up transference from the brutal execution of David Faraday, carrying the smoking gun, having limited escape routes, and in all likelihood, heading for the safety of home, did he turn left to Vallejo or right to Benicia. This may be the answer we are looking for.